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Alfian Rokhmansyah

Lahir di Pemalang pada hari Rabu tanggal 30 Agustus 1989. Alamat rumah di Jalan Jenderal Sudirman No. 18 RT 007 RW 007 Kelurahan Purwoharjo, Kecamatan Comal, Kabupaten Pemalang. Pendidikan dasar diselesaikan di SD Muhammadiyah 02 Comal dan SMP Negeri 1 Comal. Pendidikan menengah diselesaikan di SMA Negeri 1 Pemalang dengan program studi Ilmu Alam.

Saat ini sedang menempuh pendidikan sarjana di Fakultas Bahasa dan Seni, Universitas Negeri Semarang. Program studi yang ditempuh Sastra Indonesia S1 dengan konsentrasi bidang Ilmu Sastra. Beberapa minggu terakhir ini tengah disibukkan dengan aktivitas bimbingan skripsi bidang kajian resepsi sastra, di tengah kesibukannya menyelesaikan tugas-tugas kuliah. Semoga bisa dinyatakan lulus tahun ini dan menjalani wisuda awal tahun 2011.


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Sabtu, 21 Maret 2009

Influences on Parenting

Sumber : Martin, C.A., Colbert, K.K.1997. Parenting A Life Span Perspective. New York : McGraw-Hill

When someone becomes a parent, they bring a combination of personal nature (personal traits) and experience-experience. Individuals who become parents have levels of maturity, energy, patience, intellect, and attitude. Characteristics of this will affect their sensitivity to the needs of children, the hope against themselves and their children, and their ability to perform the role of nurture demand (in Dix Martin & Colbert, 1997)

Parents have any idea about how lonely child growing, learning, and nurture feelings of the process. This belief is the basis of thinking to treat their children. Trust include the development phase, the idea of the importance of the influence of offspring (heredity) and environment, hope will be the relationship of parents - of children, and thought about what underlie nurture the good and the bad (Goodnow & Collins, 1990; McGillicuddy-DeLisi & Sigel, 1995 in Martin & Colbert, 1997).



Parents foster pattern

Social competence and academic performance of children associated with a pattern that is applied foster parents (Papalia & Olds, 1995). According to Diane Baumrind (in Berns 1997), there are three types of care patterns.

a. Pattern foster autoritharian

Usually appears at a very demanding parents control the behavior and decorum, in accordance with strict rules and expectations set by their own. Expected to be dutiful child, parents and the standard applied hard, force, and through punishment-punishment. Foster a pattern such as this can impede the child to grow in accordance with the maximum potential, and affect the ability of children to be able to make their own decisions. Children may feel frustrated, annoyed, maral, and dare not be, depending on, and do not feel confident in themselves.

a. Pattern foster autoritatif

Appear to control where the strong are trained and applied in a manner that is loving and supporting atmosphere. Parents appreciate the goal is to increase the freedom and independence, and children, as well as ensure that they behave in accordance with the standards of the community. On this pattern, there is a process of give and receive verbal, control strategies that are based on rational and problem-oriented, and parents are willing to give explanations to children about the decisions taken by the parents.

Parents is flexible but firm, maintain control and discipline, but to give the exact reason for the discipline. They also communicate their expectations for their children, but provide an opportunity for discussion. Discipline that they apply also to emphasize the responsibility, cooperation, and the settings themselves.

Foster a pattern such as this tend to produce children who are competent, have a social responsibility, believe in themselves, and independent. On condition that this is positive as the child can develop the confidence and high self-concept is positive.

b. Pattern foster permisif

Permisif usually parents who appreciate the expression of the self and the self. They do not give a lot of demand, allowing children as much as possible to monitor the activities of their own. They regard themselves as the source (resources), avoid diberlakukannya control, and does not encourage children to comply with the rules determined by an external party. They do not control, does not demand, and quite warm. However, children will usually be fixed are not satisfied because it does not feel comfortable without any control, so he gives a lot of energy in the effort to control the parents and try to make their parents' control. Result, children become able to feel frustrated, have difficulty in accept responsibility, not an adult social-emotional, and lack of self control and confidence.



Emotional disturbance

National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities in (www.nichcy.org) states that the emotional disturbance (emotional disturbance) "is a condition that indicates the existence of one or more of the following characteristics that occur on a long enough period that affect the academic performance of children. Conditions are:

1. Inability to learn that is not related to the intellect, or sensori health.

2. The inability to build or maintain interpersonal relationships with friends and of the teachers.

3. Behavior or feelings that do not fit in normal environmental conditions.

4. There is no feeling of pleasure or depression that settled.

5. There is a tendency simptom physical or fear.



Characteristics of children who have emotional disturbances

The cause of emotional disturbances can not be determined with certainty, although some factors such as children, brain damage, diet, stress, and family may be a cause, penelitain not indicate the factors to be the main cause of emotional disturbance. Characteristics of children who have emotional disturbances can be seen as follows:

• Hyperactivity (attensi low, impulsive)

• Aggression behavior (fighting)

• Withdrawal (less can initiate interaction with other people, anxious)

exchanges or from social interaction, excessive fear or anxiety);

• Immaturity (cry that is not clear, temper tantrums, poor coping skills); and

• Learning difficulties (low performance)

Meanwhile, Cooper (in Farrel, 1995) states that emotional disturbance is the result of complex interactions between contextual factors and aspects that are brought on the situation of certain individuals. Effect in the context of this case is the home, school, and children's own personality. In the home environment, there are some experiences that may occur in children, among others:

- Lack of attention to the school parents

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