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Alfian Rokhmansyah

Lahir di Pemalang pada hari Rabu tanggal 30 Agustus 1989. Alamat rumah di Jalan Jenderal Sudirman No. 18 RT 007 RW 007 Kelurahan Purwoharjo, Kecamatan Comal, Kabupaten Pemalang. Pendidikan dasar diselesaikan di SD Muhammadiyah 02 Comal dan SMP Negeri 1 Comal. Pendidikan menengah diselesaikan di SMA Negeri 1 Pemalang dengan program studi Ilmu Alam.

Saat ini sedang menempuh pendidikan sarjana di Fakultas Bahasa dan Seni, Universitas Negeri Semarang. Program studi yang ditempuh Sastra Indonesia S1 dengan konsentrasi bidang Ilmu Sastra. Beberapa minggu terakhir ini tengah disibukkan dengan aktivitas bimbingan skripsi bidang kajian resepsi sastra, di tengah kesibukannya menyelesaikan tugas-tugas kuliah. Semoga bisa dinyatakan lulus tahun ini dan menjalani wisuda awal tahun 2011.


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Rabu, 04 Maret 2009

Science semiotics

Science semiotics 

Based on the results of research to create a sheet-a sheet of paper that has been tested using the SII (Indonesian Industrial Standard), the next step analyzes each sheet with the semiotics approach. Approach was selected because semiotics semiotics is an approach that is being sought today. Semiotics is the science of signs, and this term comes from the Greek word that means semion sign. (Panuti Sudjiman & Aart van Zoest, 1992) alerts can be found everywhere, eg: traffic lights, flags, literature works, buildings and others. This is because humans are Homo Semioticus, the human search for meaning in the goods and the symptoms that mengelilinginya (Aart van Zoest, 1978 and Lavers, t.th.) 

Modern semiotics have two pioneers, namely Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) and Ferdinand de Saussure. Pierce said semiotics proposes to study this field, while Saussure use the word semiologi. In fact the word semiotics has been used by the German philosopher named Lambert in the XVIII century. 

According to Pierce, the meaning of a sign that something is actually present. He was called as representamen. What is raised by a sign, what diacunya, what ditunjuknya, called by Pierce in the English language object. In the Indonesian language is called "reference". A sign referring to a reference, and such representation is the main function. To be able to work must be marked using something called a ground. Ground often be a sign code, but not always so. Code is a system of rules that are transindividual. Many signs have a period of decline from the ground are very individual. 

In addition diinterprestasikan sign. This shows once associated with the reference, the original sign of developing a new sign called the interpretant. The interpretant not dikacaukan here with the understanding interpretateur, which showed signs of the recipient. So, there is always a sign in the relationship trio: with its ground, with the mind, and with its interpretant. (see Sudjiman, 1991) 

Aart van Zoest (1978) cite the opinion that Pierce share the existence of a three-category: Firstness, Secondness and Thirdness, share based on the sign of the ground signs are as follows: (1) Qualisign, (2) Sinsign, and (3) Legisigns . Quali-word prefix comes from the word "quality", Sin-from "singular", and Legi-from "lex" (wet / law). 

Qualisign is a sign of a sign is based. For example, the nature of the color red is qualisign, because the signs can be used to point-kan love, danger, or restrictions. 

Sinsign (singular sign) are signs of a sign-based form or in fact it seems. All speech is an individual can sinsign. For example, a screaming, can mean wonder, pleasure, or pain. A person can be identified from how to walk, I laughed, the sound and tone is berdehem. All that is sinsign. Although only a metaphor can be used once sinsign. Each sinsign the nature so that also contain qualisign. Sinsign can be based on the sign without the code. 

Legisign is a sign of a sign based on a rule that applies generally, a convention, a code. All the signs are legisign language, because language is a code, each containing legisign in a sinsign, a second that connects with the third, ie, a rule that applies generally, then legisign itself is a thirdness. 

Based on the relationship between mind and sign (denotation), Pierce distinguishes them into three (3) type of sign, namely: (1) icons, (2) index, and (3) symbol. This is stated as follows: In principle there are three relationships that may exist. (1) The relationship between sign and mind can be a similarity relation, called the sign icon. (2) this relationship can arise due to proximity of existence; signs that called the index. (3) Finally, this relationship can also be shaped conventional; sign is a symbol. 

The sign is a sign that the icon-like objects are represented, or a sign that the similarity or characteristics similar to that dimaksudkannya. For example, a map of the same geographic region with a digambarkannya, photos and more. Things are getting a sign that the nature of relationships between signs and denotasinya, the icons such as qualisign is a firstness. 

Index is a sign that marks depend on the nature of existence is a denotation, in the terminology so that Pierce is a Secondness. Index is thus a sign of closeness, or have any connection with what is represented. For example, a sign of smoke with fire, a pillar of a road, a sign of wind, and so forth. 

The symbol is a sign, where sign and denotasinya relationship is determined by a rule that applies is determined by the public or an agreement (convention). For example, the signs are kebahasaan symbol. 

Review of relations with interpretannya sign, a sign is divided into three (3), namely: (1) Rheme when the symbol is interpretannya is a first marker and the meaning can still be developed, (2) Decisign (dicentsign) when the symbol is there and intepretannya have the correct relationship (secondness a), (3) when an argument interpretannya alert and have a valid general nature (a thirdness). 

According to Aart van Zoest, the sign is determined by three (3) elements, namely: (1) signs that can be viewed or sign itself, (2) something that is indicated or represented by the sign, (3) other signs in the mind of the recipient . Between the sign and something that represented the relationship indicates that the representative will direct my mind to an interpretation. 

This shows the representation and interpretation is a characteristic sign. 

Alerts have direct meaning of a sign that you have in mind or with the understanding that a joint called the denotation. While understanding the meaning or indirectly to 2 of yesteryear called denotation connotation. Marks that are given meaning by the recipient is called unilateral symptom, so this means konotatif. The symptom itself is a sign if the sign is not intended by the sender marks. 

Then according to Aart van Zoest, semiotics studies were divided into three (3) work areas, namely: (1) Semiotik syntax, the study focused on signs that penggolongannya, and relations with the signs that others do the same work in the function. However Semiotik syntax is not restricted only to learn the relationship between the marks in the sign of the same system, but also learn the signs in other systems that show of cooperation. For example in the film, between images and words, basically derived from the system marks a different, but working together. (2) Semiotik semantics, penyelidikannya directed to study the relationship between mind and sign (denotation), and interprestasi produced. (3) Semiotik Pragmatik, penyelidikannya directed to study the relationship between the sign and the sign of the three-level, it will be more comprehensive effort to learn the 'grammar' semiotics particular system. The most important difference in the extent pragmatik is between symptom and symptom-signal-signal. is a symptom if a sign is not intended by the sender as a sign. While the signal is a sign that it is intended by the sender as a sign. In a signal repretentatifnya aspect, there is a denotation, which is different from the symptom does not have a denotation that is deliberately given. Communication on the situation, first directed attention to the signal, but in such a situation can also appear symptom-symptom that is not intentional. According to Aart van Zoest, it sometimes has a symptom of a more power compared with the signal, because the signal may lie, while the symptom is not. 

With respect to the description above, the approach to semiotics as the paper is to review the conduct of otokritik works are made. Critical element in the review paper is perian or description, that is mentioned, record and report the matter directly tersaji which appear through the realization of vision. Second element is orakan or analysis, that is how the states a matter referred to in perian or be envisaged, with the states the nature, quality and elements of the art (line, color, field, texture) with a relative who has been described. Are three elements to the commentary or interprestasi, the claim or explain the meaning of the art. Element to the last four or states is the quality or value of art. (see Feldman, 1967, and Garret, 1978) 

Semiotics approach is one way to know and control the work that made the work of art is a sign of the artists who created can be read by the recipient or audience alert. 

Composition is one of the main aspects of the first audiences to see in works of art, because artists can communicate the vision in the sense of art to the observer. As a sign, which is a composition or preparation of the organizing elements such as texture, line, field and blob form, organized in one unit, will give an impression that is different, for example, stable or dynamic. Line is a sign, the qualisign (the term in science Semiotik) the horizontal line shows the tranquility, peace, and even death. Qualisign the vertical line illustrates kekokohan, stability, strength and grandeur. Diagonal line indicates the situation is not in balance, so that shows movement, and dynamic life. A curved line or curved striking something beautiful, supple, sprightly and bend. Lines made zig-zag in qualisign imply the spirit and passion. Horizontal line indicates the iconic sign, because the objects in nature such as the horizon, the fallen trees and others. The iconic vertical line can be associated principal trees, building walls and coral reefs. The diagonal mesh as iconic memory in the shoot-bud trees in the wind instrument wind, people running and horses that are soaring. Meanwhile, the crooked or melengung, related to the movement of waves heave toward the beach. 

As mentioned above, the color is qualisign, the nature of red can be used as a sign of danger and restrictions. In addition, the nature of the red-hot can be used to show the passion, spirit and love. The blue qualisign shows the depth and tranquility. Yellow menerang-kan warmth and hospitality. White imposing something bright, light and netal. Qualisign black marks on a depth, and kekokohan eternity. 

As a sign of the icon, the blue color in the sky, white clouds, with the mesh, the color yellow in the month, mera color on the sun and rose, the color black on the stone. 

Texture or barik is the value of a grapple surface, the texture qualisign reveal the nature of hard, smooth, soft, rough or slippery. As icons, barik hard on the texture of stone, barik can be associated to the fine cotton, soft mesh barik recall sheet on young flowers and leaves, barik roughly related to the retention on the skin of wood and sand, on the remind barik slippery moss. 

Based on the description above, the papers are made with paper this is a sign that can be read as follows: Paper, which is known as material or pad for the arts on the surface (graphic art and print images), its function would like to change. Paper is not to concentrate on the surface expression through the pen, brush, pinsil and others, but want to own the paper are presented in full with the end in itself as a media that has the value of art (art paper). (see Bahari, 1993; 1995) 

Visually, the forms or figures are presented in the blob is the paper forms Texturized, wave and emerged as relief. This is against the reality or the experience of day-to-day in which the paper in the form of sheet-sheet is a list that can be used as a writing pad, drawing and prints. In a Semiotik this case can be categorized sinsign (singular sign). 

Elements in the work of the paper is qualisign, vertical and horizontal lines that cross in the paper indicates kekokohan, stability, strength and peace. This is intended as an element of contrast to compensate for the disorganized nature of the texture, so it will show each other. does not cross a line is placed right in the middle of the field work (porosnya), to avoid the effect of formal or official can bring problems such as providing a comparison (proportion) areas on the side and underneath, on the left and right. division, the cause of gravity is different, lead to (appearance) on the dynamic effect of the paper (and harmonious). In addition, an impression strengthened by the dynamic diagonal lines on the concentration results from the crossing point field placement in the paper the other on the surface of the first paper, the problem can strengthen digategorikan as redundance. Element is the color of paper qualisign, colors used is naturally to make paper, the color white shows a bright, light and neutral, ivory yellow color indicates tenderness and warmth, tone yellow kecoklat-coklatan signifies the fragility, the ancient and obsolete . Texture elements in the show qualisign uniform, rough, (but also soft and gentle). 

Elements in the paper, such as fiber-fiber length and the fringe elements of the paper line, a line can be activated as if the move is a power line and can also not as active on the border between the two quasi-loop clod or space, between the color color. 

Vertical and horizontal lines on the outskirts of paper that is made is intended to bring the straight elements that complement the regular nature of the unruly elements as a texture contrast, so it will show each other. In addition, the presence of these lines will integrate the field has not been uniform in the works. 

Colors used are colors that tend to be of natural colors of basic raw materials to make paper, ie, white, beige, yellow color tone kecoklat-coklatan and others, to give the impression qualisign neutral and soft, that complement nature's unruly elements as a texture contrast, so it will show each other

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