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Alfian Rokhmansyah

Lahir di Pemalang pada hari Rabu tanggal 30 Agustus 1989. Alamat rumah di Jalan Jenderal Sudirman No. 18 RT 007 RW 007 Kelurahan Purwoharjo, Kecamatan Comal, Kabupaten Pemalang. Pendidikan dasar diselesaikan di SD Muhammadiyah 02 Comal dan SMP Negeri 1 Comal. Pendidikan menengah diselesaikan di SMA Negeri 1 Pemalang dengan program studi Ilmu Alam.

Saat ini sedang menempuh pendidikan sarjana di Fakultas Bahasa dan Seni, Universitas Negeri Semarang. Program studi yang ditempuh Sastra Indonesia S1 dengan konsentrasi bidang Ilmu Sastra. Beberapa minggu terakhir ini tengah disibukkan dengan aktivitas bimbingan skripsi bidang kajian resepsi sastra, di tengah kesibukannya menyelesaikan tugas-tugas kuliah. Semoga bisa dinyatakan lulus tahun ini dan menjalani wisuda awal tahun 2011.


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Kamis, 26 Maret 2009

Wayang Character Transformation

1. Introduction
1.1Latar Back Issues
During the early occurrence of the modern Indonesian literature, in addition to works of literature that is born from the hands of writer and / or descendants of Chinese peranakkan, publikasinya disemarakkan by publisher Balai Pustaka, which strictly controlled by the Dutch colonial government, which generally publish the papers that are dominated by writers of the Minangkabau. The form of the conflict between modern thought with the habit (long) to form the main, marked by triumphant novel Siti Nurbaya paper Rusli angry. Selanjut-next, works of literature Indonesiapun lead the discussion to the themes of thought and modern life, modern Indonesian society. Proclamation of independence, and the spirit of revolution that proclaimed (and practiced) by The Great Leader, the issue of nationalism continue to blow warm-warm chicken droppings. Works of literature involved involved in the issues of unity-struggle kesatuandan national heroism as well not be separated from the matter of inclusion of modern thought earlier.
At around 70-an/80-an, which is the time-period of the start of the era of development (after the conflict for the conflict between the various faction that children of the nation, he said, first Sehati arms), began work pop writer-author of Java content story inspired and related to the story puppet. Indeed, in the middle of the spirit of equality in the era of New Order, the symptoms appear also raise again the elements provincial cultural origin of the author, either what it is, generally this time is dominated by wong Jowo. One of the works of literature 'smell' puppet that appears in the final years of the 90's, era domination and political power of New Order and all-round play rupiah is campaigning for the physical development will soon be bankrupt because of problems in terms of monetary (yak, financial also). "Parta Krama", that's the title of the paper storiette Pak Umar Kayam, professor in the field of sociology and faculty remain at the UGM, the brisk khasanah participate pewayangan modern Indonesian literature in the mid 90's.
This short story is very explicitly associated with the story of a puppet episode of Arjuna, the sacred and noble-looking mandraguna Pandawa's clan, one of the episode that developed from large epic Mahabhrata. Even in the first part of the short story on this episode of Arjuna is also cited (with the first variation does not discuss the story that is) perfectly, again. New on the fiction of the second section have withdrawn the property of this short story, which of course, related to the stories that were presented earlier puppet. Regard, this is called the process of transforming a text in discourse Intertekstual as one of the methods approach to examine the paper. Thus, for analysis on the short story in this paper, will be used as the basis Intertekstual theory, and models for implementation, will use the classification made by Burhan Nurgiyantoro, brilliant scholars from IKIP Malang, who had conducted research on the model-model transformation in the elements pewayangan Indonesia modern fiction.

1.2 Platform Theory
1.2.1 Intertekstual
The tenet, or principle Intertekstual came from France and brought up in the flow of French structuralism in the pemikran influenced by the French philosopher, Derrida Jaquaes, and developed by Julia Kristeva (Ratih 2003: 125). Intertektual theory has the assumption that a literary text is always associated with the texts as a reference and mind. Relationship between the text can be to other literary texts, can also to be on the imitation of the universe (in the wider). One form of classification is made in this theory is as Riffaterre bring the term hipogram text for the text as a reference text for the transformation of the so-called transformative text.
Works of literature (lyric) full of new meaning (meaningful) after connecting with the work of literature (lyric) due to the fact the paper is a response to literature (serapan, processed, mosaics, quote, transformation) of what already exists in other works of literature (Kristeva in Culler, 1977: 139). Hipogram response from the text in the form of words, phrases. Sentences, shapes, ideas, and the like in the text of transformative creative process so that we (readers) often will not remember again hipogramnya (Nurgiyantoro, 2003: 137). In the relationship between the short story "Parta Krama" with this episode parta Krama or marriage Arjuna puppet in the story, we can see quite clearly with the transformation of these events. Moreover, with that in the short story kenyatan this text hipogramnya cited again as needed transformation of the text (or transformative)-nya.

1.2.2 Model Transformation Pewayangan Burhan Nurgiyantoro.
Although there may be enough to discuss the matter any posts puppet in modern fiction Indonesia (start of a new book to some articles or essays-essays of a more Nurgiyantoro book with the title "Transformation Pewayangan in Indonesia Modern Fiction" is the most special examining patterns or relationships between model transformation fiction stories with puppets modern Indonesia. In the book, the Nurgiyantoro share the ditransformasi five categories: flow, penokohan, background, key issues and themes, and the transformation of values. Each category is divided again into one to three types, ddan in between, in total, these eleven types, some of which have to be divided in two to three models. In addition, also related to the transformation process, the Nurgiyantoro also discuss about the attitudes and niatan authors, who produce characteristics such as puppet the disakralkan or even in-desakralkan. intertekstual reception of literature and made by Nurgiyantoro theory as a foundation in research methods to apply it.

1.3 Restrictions and Formulation Problems
In any posts at this time, and any posts sesui with the title for the task of this course, will only be seen interteks relationship between the short story "Parta Krama" Umar Kayam paper and the story of Arjuna in pewayangan the transformation penokohan, puppet story with all the variations that may exist and also refers to the epic Mahabharata belong to India as the origin story of the puppet. In my view, the elements that penokohanlah be disclosed to the short story and the subject penokohanlah most associated with the theme (which brings together the story of 'solitary' short story with the story parta Krama). Will be explained later in the discussion. Refers to the model transformation from Burhan Nurgiyantoro, the analysis will be included in this type of pe (n)-transformasian prominent puppet character in fiction are not puppets. To model or sub-type can be explicit to be rated in the model transformation perwatakan without naming. However, the model transformation perwatakan without naming can also apply to the analysis this time with specific reasons. Will be explained in the discussion.

1.4 Objectives
In short, in this analysis will be seen how the transformation of puppet characters to fictional characters in modern literature in Indonesia storiette "Parta Krama" hipogramnya above text, namely marriage episode in the story of Arjuna puppet as one of the episodes from the epic Mahabharata.

2. Discussion
In short story "Parta Krama" Umar Kayam this paper, the ekspilsit there are two separate stories in which explicit perurutan. The first episode is the return of Arjuna as puppets in the story. In the second story there is a new fiction novel is distinctive, with the context of the story related in the first. Narrate the story of how Arjuna first, ya Parta, Janaka ya, ya Permadi also (this indicates that there are variations in the name of Arjuna in the wayang story) love to Lara IRENG, or Wara Sembadra, or Sembadra, and want to mengawininya. To terkabulnya desires, and through the Kresna, Sembadra the request as a number of newly-wed couple. Although heavy, Arjuna enough magic to be able to get it. He was flying to heaven where the gods to (will) grant the wishes Sembadra. After the flight or terbangan Arjuna (who melesat like lightning into the air), this short story and then move to the second section. The second story in a story about Drs.Herdjuna, a director of the bank rich, who feels his wife should fail the request, Ms. Lies, promised a number of cars and luxury jewelry story by leaders called Pak A Jouw A Jouw. For that, Drs.Herdjuna musti memuluskan proposal worth of loans, the bank dipimpinnya, by Pak A Jouw Jouw. Memuluskan which means faster than usual, and perhaps also without procedures such as strict as it usually is not the gift that is promised there will be a 'what-apa' it. And will act Arjuna, drs.Herdjuna also feel that he certainly can, as a man, realize the dream of the wife.
Overview can be seen how there keterhubungan between the two stories in one on the roof. However, before entering the discussion to the official, will be discussed first o.k. little about the variation that may have on the text hipogramnya. Puppet version of the story is known to be more or less similar to what was written again by Umar Kayam. However, any posts from the epic Mahabharata P. Lal (1984) there are differences enough light. In the version of the story that had not Sembadra requests, such as newly-wed couple dio up, because the Arjuna Arjuna Kresna even suggest the kidnap Sembadra worry Sembadra unprepared dilamar Arjuna. And Arjuna do. Sembadra and Arjuna on the kind of life as a wife who tawakal. That said P. Lal. Although there are differences, that perhaps this is fundamental, in the discussion will be used as a second version with hipogram considerations will be more enriched pemaknaan.
Now the discussion. As outlined by subsection restriction problem before, then this study will focus discussion on the major transformation perwatakan to figure puppet figures in fiction is not Wayang storiette "Parta Krama". Of other elements from the background to the attitude the author also intended disinggung, but in the position as it related to this discussion of the main. Talk perwatakan views malihat figure-naming tokohnya first. Drs.Herdjuna, can be seen, associated with the noble Arjuna in the puppet, Ny.Lies transformation from Sembadra. This is the figure that the two most obvious, first, the process of transformation. According to the story, Drs.Herdjuna find the same problems with Arjuna. They ditantang kelelakiannya can fulfill the desire to praise the heart of each them. Arjuna menyelasaikan problems with kesaktian kemandragunaannya as context and time of life, the puppet of the age of miracles is the ability of men. Drs Herdjuna have the appropriate context kesaktian time. In the modern era is a director of the office of a bank binafit position is not less sacred mandraguna. So, with the grant application credit Jouw Jouw Pak A, terpenuhilah also wish his wife would treasure gelimang world. Pentransformasian enough can also be obtained explicitly from the two figures is the event when both Arjuna and Drs.Herdjuna are tertantang kelelakiannya. Both equally say: "eeeiit, lha dalahh ..."
The process of transformation Sembadra against Ny.Lies is in the events when they ask each of them each have a fan. But the degree of intensity is reduced because of this transformation ny.Lies different context request with Sembadra caused pelamaran Arjuna. Differences in this context also reduce the intensity of Arjuna-Drs.Herdjuna. In the case perwatakan, there are also differences in the quality transformation Arjuna-Drs.Herdjuna with Ny.Lies-Sembadra. Arjuna was the character of the Drs.Herdjuna includes two things: first courage as their male kekasihnya the fun and the second is in the position that they were 'wet' and zamannya the context of this is also related to the intellect of each them. Related to this is also the first to actually have a similar but never the same again (and this however it will affect the ratings on the reader will intensisitas of both). Namely, that when the despondent Arjuna Herdjuna and there are loads in the head. Kegundahan Arjuna is put before it and after Sembadra sheen appears to be stunned by. Medium stresnya Herdjuna because demand is already wah's wife, who already dinikahi, it - that in the event the request Sembadra, Arjuna did not stress too visible. Moreover, after menyemangatinya Kresna. And this is also related with the difference plot Herdjuna story where the story begins after a request from the Ny.Lies (Arjuna are the stories in this short story begins when Arjuna postwar ngintipin ayu-to-an Sembadra the memabuk kepayangkan), and still continues after the Herdjuna convince themselves will grant the request of the wife (who is in the final Arjuna). However, in general pentransformasian pewatakan Arjuna-Herdjuna remain stronger than Ny.Lies-Sembadra the terms of the main figures penokohan not too large so that no 'portion' of each in their stories, and can be far more powerful in that it request Sembadra smooth budinya is not comparable with the background temporal demand Ny.Lies the property will be greedy.
In the case of naming, referring again to the classification Nurgiyantoro, Herdjuna name not be equated with a name similar to Arjuna because no means the same. Equation Setadewa name in the Priyayi with leaders in Baladewa puppet by Nugiyantoro is the reason Baladewa also have the nickname 'seta' which means white, while the figures for the short story in which this has not discussed the reasons for menyamakannya found. Perhaps the reason pemlesetan form of creative process, and the name of Arjuna Herdjuna this could be considered the same, so also are pentransformasian name. But, why just a pemlesetan-kedarnya just not necessarily strong enough to be used (except perhaps for pemlesetan intensity effects that have a significant effect pemaknaan). Then Ny.Lies between the name and Sembadra, so, it is already clear, visible and terdengarnya. A naming Begitupun Pak Jouw A Jouw and designation Mbak Sri Klantangmimis Yu. The only naming the puppet figure is the same designation Pak Wisnu, Siwa Pak, Pak Narada, Brahma Pak, Pak and Semar in conversation with Mr. Drs.Herdjuna A Jouw A Jouw. However, these figures do not present it to play directly in the story. With the presence of their position that is not directly in the story, bolehlan considered naming this is. Except that naming perwatakan figures and stories in this short story, based on the discussion above, it can be seen is can be inserted with some measure to the classification pentransformasian with puppet figures perwatakan without naming. Few of the leaders of Pak A Jouw A Jouw we can with the events when paralelkan encouraging Kresna and Arjuna, again, with diparalelkan Kresna a smooth relationship Arjuna Sembadra. In a case that, perwatakan A Jouw A Jouw can also transformed, once again, is very limited, to the Kresna.
Finally, now, will be discussed also the connection that has been seen above between fiction Herdjuna the puppet version of the Arjuna Arjuna marries Sembadra of the epic Mahabharata which reference is made here. As was expressed earlier, at a glance, in the version Mahabharatanya, points difference here, Sembadra not had time to submit a request on Arjuna. If the transformation sought Drs.Herdjuna with Arjuna in the Mahabharata and the resistance will be seen, as one form of transformation is in theory intertekstual. In Mahabharata, Arjuna did not give a chance for Sembadara submit various requirements on lamarannya. Dish and cultivated the first trigger rapt, although it remains happy ending. Drs.Herdjuna? He was not the power to refrain will not give up on the wife, so also in the puppet figures Arjuna. Then, with the transformation between the leaders of Pak Kresna A Jouw A Jouw, we will also see a comparison in the form of reciprocal relationship. Kresna is the person (or deity) who proposes to Arjuna to kidnap Sembadra (adiknya) because they're afraid Sembadra various Arjuna's brother and he (Kresna) think that women do not always find the right man in the selection, although, as Kresna own words, Arjuna is only capable of Siwa menandinginya. A Jouw A Jouw? He surely continue to spark Herdjuna to fulfill desires Ny.Lies, and that he will fulfill the request, because it is associated with a loan proposal. It is very opposed to the earlier action Kresna. Meanwhile, in the Kresna puppet, certainly in a position similar to Mr. A Jouw Jouw but more neutral in terms of differences in the context of each story. That is the interesting relationship that can be taken in penghipograman text version of the short story fiction Arjunanya in the Mahabharata, one of the text.

3. Conclusion
That discussion can be done in terms of transformation which is in pewatakan "Parta Krama" Umar Kayam to the story of Arjuna, in the puppet version, and one of the libraries of the Mahabharata. Here we see just how strong the intensity of transformation perwatakan to figure puppet-fiction short story in order and depending on the interests of citraan and pemaknaan-fiction cerpennya itself. That is, with the general reader have capital will flow perwatakan lalau Arjuna marriage story, and refers to it, the author ago the story that is tied to the context for the story, and again quite able to keep themselves in the story of Arjuna as hipogramnya.
Next will be a little disinggung about niatan as the author points Nugiyantoro put this in sistimatika end of the analysis and determine how niatan author of the text tranformasi against hipogramnya. Covered in this, that the author would like to talk about the context of a tradition kekinian about collusion, connection, and nepotism (as, he said that, it mendarah meat for this nation relijius) by using the grip penghipograman puppet story that has been established with the community to understand with the expectation that the goal of the paper will have more effect dimaknai by more readers (which also has large, or at least know, with the tradition pewayangan). If the puppet figures that dihipogramkan are examples of both, in his work the author is menghipogrami on bad examples. There are also elements dekonstruktif here, which occurred pembalikkan of understanding that has been established, in the case of image penokohan. Then open the possibility for itupun elements of humor or at least the pe (m)-parodian. So, the fair also, Nurgiyantoro, a great admiration in the figure on the good puppet, mendefenisikan character transformation as interteks like this, first play, to, harassment. That in the case citraan figures. However, the themes and the general mandate remains the noble values and Peng-katarsis-an (figures in fictional works of literature, became a mirror for our time).

Daftar Pustaka:
1.Nurgiyantoro, Burhan. 1998. Transformasi Unsur Pewayangan Dalam Fiksi Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.
2.Ratih, Rina. 2003. “Pendekatan Intertekstual Dalam Karya Sastra” terdapat dalam Metodologi Penelitian Sastra. Jabrohim (ed.). hal: 125-133. Yogyakarta: Hanindita Graha Widya.
3.Kayam, Umar. 1997. “Parta Krama” dimuat di KOMPAS, 23 Februari 1997.
4.Lal, P. 1984. Mahabharata. hal: 89-91. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya.

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